Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

Diabetes Mellitus Type 2
Sumber: istockphoto, Karya: designer491.

Diabetes mellitus is a condition characterized by hyperglycemia and metabolic abnormalities of proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates that are linked to absolute or relative deficiencies in insulin secretion. Diabetes mellitus symptoms reported, polyphagia, decline, polydipsia, and polyuria fatness and weight.

According to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), 371 million cases of type 2 mellitus were reported globally in 2012, accounting for 95% of all cases of diabetes. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is 1.9% worldwide, making it the seventh leading cause of death worldwide. The 2008 Basic Health Research Results revealed that 57% of Indonesians have diabetes.

Because diabetes mellitus can damage all organs in the body and create a wide range of complaints, it is known as the silent killer of people.

Baca Juga: The Importance of a Healthy Sleep Pattern

This will result in a host of diseases, such as cataracts, heart disease, renal illness, sexual impotence, lung infections, vascular disorders, strokes, and difficulties mending. Patients with severe diabetes frequently have to have limbs amputated as a result of degeneration.

Preventive methods like lifestyle changes and treatments like insulin and oral hyperglycemic medications are used to lower the incidence and severity of type 2 diabetes mellitus (Restyana, 2015).

Risk Factors

The American Diabetes Association (ADA) states that birth weight of a baby weighing over 4,000 grams or a history of gestational diabetes mellitus, age ≥45 years, ethnicity, and a low birth weight (<2.5 kg) are among the unchangeable risk factors associated with DM.1.9

Variable hazards include an unhealthy diet, lack of physical exercise, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and obesity based on IMT ≥25 kg/m2 or abdominal circle ≥80 cm in women and ≥90 cm in men. (Nuraisyah, 2018)

Another factor correlated with the risk of diabetes:

1. Obesity

Obesity and blood glucose levels are significantly correlated; to a fat degree, an IMT > 23 can raise blood sugar levels to 200 mg%.

2. Hipertension

Improper salt and water storage, or increased internal pressure on peripheral blood vessel circulation, is directly associated with elevated blood pressure in hypertension.

3. History of diabetes mellitus in the family

A person suffering from diabetes mellitus is suspected to have a diabetic gene. Diabetes mellitus only affects homozygotes who have the recessive gene.

4. Alcohol and cigarettes

Although the majority of these improvements were linked to increased weight and decreased exhaustion from physical exercise, there were other factors that also had an impact on the traditional surrounds of curves, including changes in alcohol and cigarette usage in a rise in type 2 diabetes.

Alcohol will disrupt blood sugar metabolism, particularly in diabetic people, making management more challenging. Elevated blood pressure and blood sugar levels Blood. If an individual consumes more than 60 milliliters of ethyl alcohol per day—that is, 100 milliliters of proof whiskey, 240 milliliters of wine, or 720 milliliters—their blood pressure will rise.

The following two categories comprise the risk factors for non-communicable illnesses, which includes type 2 diabetes: age, genetic variables, gender imbalance, marital status, education, employment, physical activity, alcohol intake, smoking behaviors, and body-time index.

Baca Juga: The Impact of Technology on Mental Health in the Digital Age

Complications of Diabetes mellitus

Uncontrolled diabetes can lead to acute and chronic complications. According to PERKENI, DM complications can be divided into two categories, namely:

1. Acute complication

  • a person with blood glucose levels below normal (<50 mg/dl) is said to have hypoglycemia. People with type 1 diabetes are more likely to have hypoglycemia, which might occur 1-2 times per week.
  • Blood sugar levels rising suddenly is known as hyperglycemia, and it can become a disorder. Acidosis, diabetic ketoacidosis, non-ketotic hyperosmoler coma (KHNK), and dangerous metabolism are a few of the conditions that can occur.

2. Complicated chronis

  • Most of the macrovascular problems that arise in DM patients are stroke, congestive heart failure, coronary heart disease (CHD), brain thrombocytes (blood clots in specific areas of the brain), and brain ischemia.
  • Patients with type 1 diabetes are prone to experience microvascular consequences include nephropathy, diabetic retinopathy, neuropathies, and amputations.

Baca Juga: The Influence of Father’s Mental Health on The Quality of Parenting to Their Children


Prevention of diabetes mellitus is divided into two:

1. Diet

The general public’s diet guidelines and those for diabetics are based on the same principles: a balanced diet that corresponds to each person’s unique caloric and nutritional requirements.

Diabetics should stress the value of maintaining a regular diet in terms of meal times, varieties, and amounts, particularly for patients on insulin or other medications that lower blood sugar.

Food with a balanced mix of 60–70% carbs, 20–25% fat, and 10-15% protein is the suggested standard. The Body Mass Index (BMI) is a straightforward instrument or method for keeping an eye on people’ nutritional condition, particularly when it comes to deficiencies and overweight.

2. Exercise

Regular exercise is advised, three to four times a week for around thirty minutes. This type of exercise is called CRIPE (continuous, rhythmic, interval, progressive endurance). Training based on the patient’s capacity. Take a regular 30-minute stroll as a form of mild exercise. Steer clear of immoral or immovable habits in life.

Penulis: Muhammad Raka Rizkian
Mahasiswa Pendidikan Bahasa Arab Universitas Prof. Dr. Hamka

Editor: Ika Ayuni Lestari

Bahasa: Rahmat Al Kafi

Ikuti berita terbaru di Google News


Nuraisyah, F. (2018). Faktor Risiko Diabetes Mellitus Tipe 2. Jurnal Kebidanan Dan Keperawatan Aisyiyah, 13(2), 120–127. https://doi.org/10.31101/jkk.395

Restyana, N. (2015). Restyana Noor F|Diabetes Melitus Tipe 2 DIABETES MELITUS TIPE 2. J Majority |, 4, 93–101.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *